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1 B.C. issues first fine for improper export of hazardous recyclables

by Solid Waste & Recycling

A West Coast numbered company known as Electronics Recycling Canada has pled guilty to exporting hazardous recyclable battery material without a permit or notification.
It*s a first for the province, and will force the company to pay $40,000 in fines to a B.C. court.
The exported goods included lead-acid batteries and used nickel-cadmium batteries.
The numbered company, 0831689 BC Ltd., and its director Sai Feng Guan, were ordered to pay the fine for breaches of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA, 1999). The fines will be directed to the Environmental Damages Fund.
In November 2011 and January 2012, enforcement officers inspected two containers that were returned to Canada from Hong Kong. The containers were destined for Macau but were intercepted in shipment at Hong Kong. There were no permits for the transit or export of hazardous recyclable materials for either location.
Of the $40,000 in fines, the company was ordered to pay $29,000 and Guan $11,000.
As a result of this conviction, the name of the company will be added to the Environmental Offenders Registry.
Electronics Recycling Canada represents the first federal conviction in British Columbia involving the export of hazardous recyclable material.
Quick Facts
♂CEPA, 1999, regulates exports, imports, and transits through Canada of hazardous wastes and hazardous recyclable materials with the goal of protecting Canada*s environment and the health of Canadians from the risks posed by the movement of such wastes and materials.
♂The Environmental Damages Fund (EDF) is administered by Environment Canada. It was created in 1995 to provide a mechanism for directing funds received as a result of fines, court orders, and voluntary payments to priority projects that will benefit our natural environment.
♂The Environmental Offenders Registry lists information regarding convictions of corporations registered for offences committed under certain federal environmental laws since June 18, 2009每when the Environmental Enforcement Actreceived Royal Assent.

2 Solid waste disposal fees to increase

by LYNN MAKENZI in WASTE

An increase in the city*s solid waste disposal fees could affect commercial businesses, Public Works Director Ken Donaldson said during last week*s study session of the Columbia City Council.
Columbia and Maury County Solid Waste entered into an agreement in 2005 to transfer solid waste from the Maury County landfill facility.
At the time, it was facing shutdown, Donaldson said. By combining the city and county*s trash volume, Waste Management has provided the transfer to the landfill in Ceder Ridge for 10 years.
※All of this probably began, actually, in 2004,§ he said. ※We were transferring some trash out of our facility at that time and the state had sent us a notice that they were shutting it down and they had given us a temporary term that had expired. So, we were at a point where we had to make some major improvements down there or find some alternatives to haul our trash.§
The city was hauling trash at a rate of about $33 a ton, but combining city-county trash brought it down to $25.33 a ton plus a $2.50 handling charge by the county, totaling $27.50 per ton. Last week*s discussion was to sign a new 10-year agreement, but at a higher cost based on a recent bid from the haulers.
The bid for renewal resulted in the city and county now getting charged $31.68 per ton plus the $2.50 handling fee, an increase of $6.35 per ton. It brings the city*s annual landfill cost up about $130,000 from $563,000 to $693,000 for each fiscal year, Donaldson said.
※That*s quite a sticker shock, but remember, for 10 years we*ve had real, real low prices,§ he said. ※I do want to emphasize that this is the haulers that raised their price. Maury County hasn*t raised their price and they*re still not raising their price on us.§
The increase will not affect residential costs, which would remain $14 a month. The waste management department does suggest charging $4 more in commercial fees for dumpsters and commercial cans, from $24 to $28 a month. This could generate approximately $158,000 in revenue, Donaldson said.
※It*s slightly over [$130,000], but then there*s other things # such as extra fuel cost that we were taking on,§ Donaldson said. ※We*ve done other things like over the past 10 years we*ve been shrinking our fleet # and there*s a whole lot of other things we*re trying to do, but right now that $130,000 is pretty hard to overcome without having some kind of rate increase, and we think on the commercial side it would have less effect than anything.§
Council members were concerned why the information was presented to them late in its budget cycle, with some, like Vice Mayor Christa Martin, who said this would have been easier handled if it was presented back in March.

3 Sustainable Waste Management in Africa

by LYNN MAKENZI in WASTE

In African countries experiencing economic growth, increased population and rapid urbanization每 waste management has become a constant thorn in their sides. Aided by the rejection of common waste management practices by environmental lobbyists due to the dire negative impact on the environment, this has made the disposal of waste more difficult.
For instance, more than 70 percent of Dar es Salaam*s population live in unplanned settlements and this makes waste collection in such areas extremely difficult. For lack of a better option the residents are left to burning and dumping their household garbage along rivers or roads. Sustainable Cities International(SCI) has collaborated with community based organizations such as the Kisiwani Environmental Group(KEG) to help Dar es Salaam create sustainable waste management solutions in these unplanned settlements all around the city. Groups like KEG are tasked with collecting household waste by loading them in push carts. Since more than half of the household waste collected is organic, this presents a great opportunity for the community groups to generate more income by turning the organic waste into high quality compost that is sold to the urban farming community in the city.
SCI in cooperation with Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association (BORDA) collaborate with the community groups in building their capacity on waste management by providing equipment and protective clothing, training and expanding their activities into recycling and composting activities. By charging the households for their service, additional revenue generated will allow the group members to improve their livelihoods and as an added bonus significantly reduce the waste that*s transported to the dump sites- transport being the highest cost of waste collection.
※This is sort of a surprise. We started working on budgets several months ago,§ Martin said. ※I would just like to know why we were informed at this late date of the need to increase?§
Donaldson said the information was only available recently, saying trucking prices are always a ※volatile situation,§ with several factors which could cause changes at any time.
※Trucking, for some reason, the prices are very volatile,§ he said. ※Whether you*re doing them with garbage, asphalt, sledge, all that stuff is crazy. We*re at their mercy.§
Mayor Dean Dickey also commented on the later-than-usual notice and questioned the city*s work relationship with the county when it came to solid waste disposal.
※I thought we had a better working relationship with the county than to be left out. I thought I had a better working relationship, and that*s what it amounted to,§ Dickey said. ※That*s something I*ve got to satisfy in my mind before I vote on this next Thursday.§
Dickey also suggested charging $3 instead of $4, saying the increase is only going to hurt local, smaller businesses.
※These are small businesses and they can*t afford it. You*re asking for a dollar more than you need,§ Dickey said. ※These things with fuel shortages and that kind of thing, that*s a management problem, correct?§
City Manager Tony Massey said he had originally looked at charging $3, but it would only generate approximately $90,000. Dickey suggested backing off the $4 price point until it can generate just the $130,000 needed.
※Businesses don*t need to be paying any more than they have to. I find it hard to believe to make someone pay for somebody else*s mistake, and that*s what we*re talking about,§ Dickey said. ※Whose mistake that is, I don*t know, but I wish I did.§
The council will vote on the agreement at its regular meeting June 11.

These community based organizations are also coordinating meetings where the municipalities and the various community groups can share ideas and practices as well as discuss policy matters to create incentives such as long term contracts, enforcing household payments and creating a databases of residents served.
SCI has been working hand in hand with the KEG group to manage a solid waste and composting program mainly in building capacity and documenting the progress so as to replicate the experience in other areas in the city. The long term goal is to see such groups grow into self-sustaining businesses that will improve their services and generate profits as well as act as community leaders by creating awareness of waste separation and other green living practices.

4 Waste-to-energy has a future in Bulgaria

Interview questions by Lyudmila Zlateva

KHrvoje Milosevic, Regional Sales Manager at BDI-BioEnergy International AG Mr. Milosevic, tell us more about your company 每 BDI?

BDI 每 BioEnergy International AG is market and technology leader in the construction of customised BioDiesel and BioGas plants using the Multi-Feedstock Technology the company has developed itself. The BDI BioGas technology ensures the production of energy from waste and by-products while ensuring maximum preservation of resources at the same time. BDI provides customised, turnkey BioDiesel and BioGas facilities with the in-house developed technologies of highest quality since the company was founded in 1996. From R&D, engineering and construction all the way to after-sales services, we operate as a true one-stop-shop.

LDoes energy generation from waste have a future in Bulgaria and the region?

     According to the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), the estimated food, fruit and vegetable wastes percentage for each commodity group in each step of the food supply chain are 30- 45% in agricultural production, post-harvest handling and storage, processing and packaging, distribution and consumption and in the end is generated largely in the municipal solid wastes in traditional markets (SEE) and disposed in landfill or dumping sites, causing environmental problems.
The waste management sector starts slowly to be developed in Bulgaria and will increase with separated waste collection activities. According to the latest data, 73% of collected waste is dumped at landfills, while 0% goes to incineration plants. Another 23% are separately collected and are recyclable (glass, plastic, etc.).
We need to follow all actors along the value chain and the collection processes. We have to appropriate regulatory framework, do incentives for waste prevention and recycling, as well the public investments (tendering) in facilities for waste treatment. Recycling and re-use of waste are economically attractive options for public and private investors due to the fees for a separate collection and market for secondary raw materials, where all actors can see profit. In the SEE 28% of organic waste material is not being re-used for energy. Only a small portion is reused, mainly the one related to the consumption of animal products 每 slaughterhouse wastes, but also brewery and sugar production wastes. In the SEE however statistics say that 90 million tons of food wastes are dumped every year. Much of this is valuable waste suitable for energy generation.

MTell us about a project BDI has accomplished. What makes your technology preferable?

In the year 2010 BDI has been commissioned to build a plant for the fermentation of organic household waste and residual agricultural materials in Turkey. This plant is a waste management facility that processes 30,000 tons of municipal and vegetable wastes, as well as many tons of cow and chicken manure and industrial wastes. The facility is the first of its kind in Turkey. The overall effectiveness of the municipal waste management process is heavily connected to the involvement and engagement of the community, which the facility most immediately serves.
The main strategic aim of this project is that the organic waste input is used for electricity generation and composting production, as well as the inorganic waste is recycled and reused. Another pillar of the strategy is complete integration, which depends on initiating the waste management process at homes through separation and following it step by step until it is abated in landfills. A fully integrated waste management model starts with the education of households and municipalities on how to differentiate and separate waste, and is followed by collection, separation, recycling, pre-anaerobic digestion treatment, implementing BDI anaerobic digestion, de-acidification, electricity production, heat utilization, digestate preparation, composting, fertilizer and RDF production, and the eventual disposing of the inert remainders in modern landfills, constantly eliminating undesirable process odours through bio and carbon filters.

NCould this type of generation compete with other renewables, especially in the context of rethinking national support schemes, e.g. the tendency for lower feed-in tariffs?

For the generation of energy aerobic digestion is an appropriate technology for handling the waste, especially from organic fractions. The waste characterisation shows it is more suitable to be treated that way. It is noteworthy that expired food and vegetable wastes, organic industry waste (spent grain, whey etc.) are a potent source for energy generation. Furthermore, feed-in tariffs, albeit getting lower in recent years, are a stimulus for many communities to consider waste-to-energy.
Communities can organise the waste collection process through the introduction of a fee for this activity, thus generating income not only from the household waste but also from the food, meat and beverage industries where a lot of waste is not utilised for energy generation of energy. These industries typically pay extraordinary fees for waste disposal instead of using it as energy resource. This scheme also represents a gate fee income for the anaerobic treatment. A combined effort with farmers, the food industry, retailers and consumers resource production, sustainable food choices and reduced dumping in landfills possesses a big income potential. Electrical and heat energy are not the only valuable end products of waste utilisation, though. There is also the outcome of the process in the form of high-quality organic fertiliser which brings further profit. So, income is not all in the feed-in tariffs, the most important effect at the end are savings in CO2 emissions and future environmental negative effects.

ODoes BDI work with universities and research bodies to bring about innovation? What technical achievements are you most proud of?

Research and Development is crucial for BDI in order to continue to set standards in the field of sustainable energy production using the company*s own technologies. Every year, BDI invests a considerable share of its turnover in future-orientated R&D related to the utilisation of new raw materials from the waste sector and other industries to produce renewable energy and other recoverables. BDI is working in a common research centre since 2003. We are in an active membership with the Karl Franzens University of Graz, the Technical University of Graz, the European Algae Biomass Association, the European Biogas Association, ARGE Kompost Austria, and many more. Our long-lasting and close cooperation with these institutions provides us technical expertise and a wide-ranging selection of services. We are also working with members of the university in Greece and Turkey, so that we can always find the best solution for our customers

5 WASTE TO ENERGY FERRYBRIDGE MULTIFUEL 1 PLANT INKS POWER PURCHASE AGREEMENT

YORKSHIRE, UK

A power purchase deal has been signed ahead of commercial operations starting at the ㏒300 million Multifuel 1 waste to energy plant in West Yorkshire, UK, later this year.
Multifuel Energy Limited (MEL), a joint venture between SSE and US-based Wheelabrator Technologies has signed a two-year Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) with SmartestEnergy for the output from the Ferrybridge Multifuel 1 project near Knottingley in West Yorkshire. The power station will produce around 600 Gigawatt hours of low carbon electricity a year from 570,000 tonnes of processed municipal, commercial and industrial waste per year.
The PPA signed with SmartestEnergy is expected to be worth around ㏒75 million over the contract which also covers generation during the commissioning phase which is now in its final stages.
Under the agreement, SSE will purchase the Levy Exemption Certificates (LECs) which are granted for electricity produced from renewable energy sources.
In May the project announced that both of the boiler lines had undergone a first fire, as part of the commissioning process.
MEL has applied to build and operate a second Multifuel power station at the Ferrybridge site (known as FM2). If planning permission is granted to FM2, both plants will be capable of treating over one million tonnes of waste derived fuels each year.

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